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Product design process: what it is and how to get it right

Learn the crucial stages and steps that ensure your product not only looks good but functions effectively and fulfills user needs.

31 October, 2023
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Behind every great product lies a thoughtful and methodical design process. It's the meticulous planning, research, and iterations that transform an idea into a tangible and effective product. 

By understanding and implementing the steps we outlined in our guide, you will lay down a solid foundation that ensures your end product resonates with your users.

We'll delve into the various stages of the process, offering you insights into best practices and methods that lead to successful product outcomes. 

So, buckle up and learn the crucial stages and steps that ensure your product not only looks good but functions effectively and fulfills user needs.

Want your product to attract, engage, and keep customers?

Merge is here to help.

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Product design process
Product design process

Defining the product vision

Every great product begins with a vision. Defining a product vision provides a clear direction, unifying the team under a shared goal and guiding the various phases of product development. 

It ensures every design decision, feature inclusion, and marketing strategy aligns with the overarching objective. 

It's not just about what the product does, but why it exists in the first place and how it will positively impact its intended users.

Value proposition and success criteria

Central to this vision is the product's value proposition. It succinctly conveys the unique benefit or solution the product offers to its target audience, differentiating it from competitors. 

In essence, it answers the pivotal question: "Why should a customer choose this product over others?" A strong value proposition resonates with user needs and desires, ensuring the product fills a specific gap or solves a genuine problem in the market.

Equally important is establishing success criteria. These are measurable outcomes that indicate whether the product has achieved its intended purpose. 

Success criteria might encompass metrics like user engagement levels, sales figures, customer retention rates, or any other quantifiable indicators relevant to the product's goals. 

Setting clear success criteria early on ensures the team has a tangible benchmark against which to measure the product's performance, facilitating informed decisions and iterations throughout its lifecycle.


Product research process

Before you dive into designing, you have to know your waters. Knowledge is power, especially when entering a competitive market. By collecting data, insights, and user feedback, product research ensures the final output aligns with market needs, maximizing its chances of success.

This process involves identifying potential users, understanding their needs, gauging market demand, and spotting trends that might influence the product's development and positioning. 

Don’t forget to also explore the fundamentals of what product design entails and why it's vital in the journey of creating impactful products.

Market research and competitive landscape

A critical component of product research is market research. This digs into the current market scenario, identifying potential gaps, user behaviors, and emerging trends. 

By conducting surveys, focus groups, and analyzing existing data, you can pinpoint where opportunities lie and what challenges might arise. It's about understanding the "who," "what," and "why" of your target audience.

Meanwhile, understanding the competitive landscape brings a deep dive into products or services that rival yours, identifying their strengths, weaknesses, unique selling points, and market positioning. 

Mapping out competitors helps you recognize where your product can carve out its niche, ensuring it offers something distinct or superior.

User research and analysis

Truly effective products are built around user needs and feedback. User research and analysis serve as the compass, guiding the direction and ensuring alignment with user needs. 

This systematic approach uncovers behaviors, needs, and motivations of users through observation, task analysis, and other feedback methodologies.


Surveys are quantitative research tools used to collect data from a larger subset of users. Using platforms like SurveyMonkey or Google Forms, designers can gather feedback on specific aspects of a product, gauge user satisfaction, or understand user demographics. 

For example, an e-commerce site wanting to enhance its checkout process might deploy a survey asking users about their recent checkout experiences, pinpointing areas of friction.

User interviews

User interviews, a qualitative method, delve deep into individual user experiences, preferences, and pain points. Conducted either face-to-face, over the phone, or via video calls, they allow for open-ended discussions, unearthing insights not possible through surveys alone. 

A fitness app developer might interview users to understand their workout routines, shedding light on features they value most, like integration with wearable tech or personalized workout recommendations.

Contextual usage data

This involves observing and analyzing how users interact with a product in their natural environment. Tools like Hotjar or Crazy Egg can track user movements, clicks, and scrolls, providing a heatmap of the most engaged areas. 

For instance, a news portal analyzing contextual usage data might discover that users predominantly click on multimedia content, prompting a design shift to prioritize such elements.

Creating user personas

User personas are fictional representations of your product's ideal users, crafted using real data collected from user research. These detailed profiles – often including age, occupation, goals, challenges, and behaviors – help teams empathize with users, ensuring design and functionality cater to specific needs. 

Imagine designing a digital payment system for "Emma," a 28-year-old freelance photographer who prioritizes transaction speed and invoice management. By creating this persona, the product team can visualize and cater to Emma's specific needs during the design phase.

Want your product to attract, engage, and keep customers?

Merge is here to help.

Learn more

Product ideation stage

The ideation stage is where abstract concepts begin to take a tangible form. This stage is all about brainstorming, sketching, collaborating, and iterating, setting the stage for the more detailed design and development phases that follow.


Wireframes are the blueprints of the digital world, offering a skeletal, visual guide of a product's layout. Using tools like Balsamiq or Axure, designers lay out the structure, hierarchy, and relationship between elements, without getting bogged down by colors, graphics, or fonts. 

For example, while designing a music streaming app, a wireframe might detail where the play button sits, how the playlist scrolls, or the placement of the search bar. 

By creating these low-fidelity representations, teams can quickly iterate and gain stakeholder feedback, ensuring a solid foundation before diving into detailed designs.


Before digital tools come into play, good old-fashioned pen and paper can be invaluable. Sketching is a rapid way to visualize ideas, fostering creativity without the constraints of software. 

It's especially useful during brainstorming sessions where speed is of the essence. Imagine a team debating the layout of a new smartwatch interface; a few quick sketches can bring ideas to life, allowing for instant feedback and collaboration.

Proposing an information architecture

An information architecture (IA) is the art and science of organizing and labeling content effectively and sustainably, ensuring users can effortlessly navigate and find what they're looking for. 

Tools like card sorting (where users group content into open or pre-defined categories) or tree testing (where users navigate a simplified version of the structure) can be instrumental. 

For instance, an e-commerce site selling electronics might have an IA that breaks products down by type (smartphones, laptops, wearables) and then by brand or feature. 

Without a well-thought-out IA, users might struggle to locate products, leading to decreased satisfaction and sales.

Design phase starts

The design phase transforms your ideation into actionable visuals. Designers employ advanced tools and software to craft detailed interfaces, ensuring both aesthetics and functionality align perfectly with user needs and business goals.

Prototype, review, refine, repeat

Prototyping is the heart of the design phase. Using tools like Figma, Adobe XD, or Sketch, designers create interactive mockups, allowing stakeholders and potential users to "experience" the product before it's fully developed. 

For instance, a prototype of a mobile banking app would let users virtually navigate through account balances, fund transfers, or bill payments, identifying any hitches in the user journey.

After prototyping comes the review. Feedback is gathered, and designers identify areas of improvement. Maybe a button's positioning feels off, or a particular flow is too convoluted. 

Based on this feedback, refinement ensues. The design undergoes tweaks and adjustments, enhancing its usability and appeal.

This process is cyclical. Prototypes are continually reviewed and refined until the design feels right, ensuring the end product is both delightful and efficient for its users.

Testing initial designs

Before a product hits the market, it undergoes rigorous testing. Often, a product design agency will emphasize the significance of usability testing, underscoring its importance in refining and perfecting the design based on real-world user interactions.

Tools like or UserTesting offer platforms for remote usability tests, immediately capturing user interactions and feedback. 

For instance, an e-commerce platform might discover through testing that users are abandoning carts due to a confusing checkout process.

Design iteration and finalization

Post-testing, armed with feedback, the design enters the iteration phase. Here, designers make necessary modifications, be it repositioning elements, altering colors, or simplifying workflows. 

They might employ A/B testing, presenting users with two design variations to discern which performs better. For example, a news website might test two homepage layouts to see which drives more engagement.

Once iterations align the design with user expectations and project goals, finalization takes place. This is the culmination of research, ideation, prototyping, and testing, ensuring a product that's both user-friendly and business-savvy.


Validation and launch

Reaching the validation stage is a critical milestone, signaling your product's readiness for the market. At this stage, all designs, functionalities, and user flows are rigorously tested in real-world scenarios.

Beta Testing is a common validation technique. Here, a limited group of users gets early access to the product. Their interactions, feedback, and potential issues are closely monitored. 

For instance, a new game might be released to a select group of gamers. Their experiences – from gameplay mechanics to bug encounters – guide developers in refining the final version.

Post-validation, there's the crucial launch phase. Here, all systems are set to go live. Technical teams ensure servers can handle potential user load, marketing teams prime their campaigns, and support teams brace for user inquiries. 

Dropbox, for example, initially launched its product in a controlled beta environment. Feedback from early adopters was invaluable, driving refinements that led to the well-loved product we know today.

Post-launch and follow through

​​The product journey doesn't end at launch; it evolves. Once a product is live, the real-world feedback and data start flowing in, which are invaluable for further refinement and growth.

Performance monitoring becomes crucial at this stage. Tools like Google Analytics or Mixpanel help teams track user engagement, retention rates, and other vital metrics. By understanding how users are interacting with the product, teams can pinpoint areas needing improvement. 

For instance, Instagram continually monitors user interactions and, based on feedback, introduces features or tweaks existing ones, like their evolution from a simple photo-sharing app to introducing reels and IGTV.

User feedback collection is another critical post-launch activity. Platforms like UserVoice or in-app feedback forms can gather user sentiments and suggestions. Slack, the communication platform, attributes much of its refinement and feature additions to continuous user feedback collected post-launch.

Lastly, continuous improvement is the mantra. With the tech landscape ever-evolving, products need to adapt, innovate, and upgrade. Regular software updates, feature releases, and UI/UX enhancements are part of this follow-through.

Want your product to attract, engage, and keep customers?

Merge is here to help.

Learn more


Overall, each stage in the product design process holds its unique significance and challenges. From the initial spark of ideation to the rigorous tests of post-launch evaluations, every step is integral in shaping products that not only meet but exceed user expectations.

It's also important to recognize that the process of product creation is ongoing. Continuous feedback, regular updates, and a keen focus on user needs will ensure that the products we build remain relevant, efficient, and in line with market demands.

As we wrap up, reflecting on these examples of stellar product design can provide inspiration and guidance for our future projects, ensuring that you always strive for excellence.

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CEO and Founder of Merge

My mission is to help startups build software, experiment with new features, and bring their product vision to life.

My mission is to help startups build software, experiment with new features, and bring their product vision to life.

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