Back to Catalogue

Guide on LTV and retention for startups

Every one of your customers is not just a sale; they're a part of your product’s and company’s journey. And LTV is crucial in this journey.

28 November, 2023
post image

Facing challenges in growing your startup? The solution might lie in two key metrics: Customer Lifetime Value (LTV) and customer retention. Every one of your customers is not just a sale; they're a part of your product’s and company’s journey. And LTV is crucial in this journey.

This article will guide you through the maze of LTV and customer retention, showing how they are the silent heroes behind successful startups. We'll explore strategies to enhance LTV, balancing it with Customer Acquisition Cost (CAC), and the art of keeping customers coming back.

Struggling with high user churn rates and low retention?

Our UX team can help you.

Learn more

Introduction to LTV and retention in startups

As a web design startup, we've learned that Customer Lifetime Value is a crucial metric, measuring the total revenue a business can expect from a single customer over their relationship with the company. It helps you understand customer value, guiding strategic decisions about marketing, sales, product development, and customer service. 

Customer retention plays a pivotal role in enhancing LTV for businesses. Retaining existing customers is more cost-effective than acquiring new ones, leading to higher LTV as loyal customers typically buy more and refer others, boosting sales and revenue. 

Repeated transactions from retained customers over time directly increase their LTV, thereby maximizing company profits. Statistically, even a small increase in customer retention (just 5%) can significantly raise profits, by 25% to 95%, underscoring the direct correlation between customer retention and increased LTV​​​.


LTV calculations

In practice, LTV is calculated by multiplying the average value of a sale by the number of transactions and the retention time, and then by the profit margin. Key inputs affecting LTV include average order size, order frequency, gross profit per customer, retention rate, and customer acquisition costs.

Key inputs affecting LTV
Key inputs affecting LTV

Common misconceptions about LTV

Below is the list of common LTV misconceptions and how to avoid them:

  1. Misinterpreting LTV as total or predicted sales. LTV should not be confused with total sales or predicted sales value, which are respectively lifetime revenue (LTR) and predicted revenue. Many companies mistakenly rely on these metrics due to a misunderstanding of how to calculate CLV properly​​.
  2. Incorrect calculation of gross margin. A frequent mistake is calculating CLV as simply revenue minus product cost. This approach inaccurately assesses gross margin, leading to misjudgments in investment, particularly in growth strategies​​.
  3. Ignoring the time component. LTV is time-dependent and must be calculated for a specific period, considering factors like purchase frequency and seasonality. It's important to provide context when discussing LTV, such as specifying the customer group and time frame​​​​.
  4. Overlooking the need for visualizations. Relying solely on manual calculations of LTV can lead to incomplete insights. Visualizations are crucial to understand trends and make informed decisions about pricing and marketing strategies. They provide a more comprehensive view of how LTV evolves over time​​​​.
  5. Mixing together LTV and Customer Loyalty. High LTV doesn't necessarily imply customer loyalty. A customer might have a high LTV but may not have made a purchase in years, indicating they're no longer a loyal customer. It's important to use more accurate indicators like RFM (Recency, Frequency, Monetary) to assess customer loyalty​​.

Struggling with high user churn rates and low retention?

Our UX team can help you.

Learn more

Strategies to enhance LTV

Let’s now check our various strategies to boost your startup's Customer Lifetime Value. From segmentation to customer experience optimization, here are the methods that work.


We have three essential segmentation strategies.

LTV by time since first purchase

This segmentation strategy focuses on how long it has been since a customer's first purchase. It's observed that LTV growth can slow down after a certain period, such as two years. The implication is that customer behavior shortly after acquisition is crucial. 

For instance, comparing the 90-day LTV of customers acquired a year ago versus three years ago can reveal trends in customer retention. It's important to monitor repurchase rates and average order value (AOV) during the initial months to keep customers engaged and maximize their long-term value​​.

LTV by first product purchased

Segmenting LTV based on the first product a customer purchases can reveal which products lead to higher LTV. Customers who buy certain products or product categories may stay longer and purchase more, increasing their lifetime value. 

By understanding the characteristics of these customers, businesses can adjust marketing strategies to attract similar customers. Promoting products that lead to higher LTV can be a smart strategy to increase customer acquisition and overall growth​​.

Speaking of value, remember to also have your value proposition entrepreneurship sorted out!

LTV by marketing channel

Breaking down LTV by marketing channel helps identify which channels bring in more profitable customers. Analyzing LTV by channel reveals trends in customer profitability that can inform budget allocation. 

For example, customers acquired through a specific channel may have a higher gross margin over their lifetime compared to others. This insight allows businesses to reallocate marketing efforts and budget to channels yielding higher LTV, optimizing the acquisition strategy for long-term value and brand growth​​.


Optimizing shopping experiences

Three more strategies, now focused on customer experience.

Upselling and cross-selling 

Upselling and cross-selling are sales techniques aimed at increasing revenue by encouraging customers to purchase more, higher-priced, or complementary products. Upselling involves persuading customers to buy an upgraded or more expensive version of a product, while cross-selling recommends additional products related to the initial purchase. 

These strategies not only generate higher transaction values and revenue per customer but also improve the shopping experience by helping customers discover relevant items. Effective techniques include offering bundle deals, providing interactive demos of premium features, and using social proof like positive testimonials​​.

Free shipping and personalized customer experiences 

Personalizing the customer experience is crucial for long-term LTV growth. This involves creating a tailored experience based on customer behavior and preferences, using data segmentation post-purchase. Effective personalization can lead to up to 25% higher revenue overall.

Strategies include curating marketing content, providing recommendations based on previous purchases, and engaging customers with value-added content beyond direct sales pitches. Building customer loyalty through personalized experiences, and understanding customer needs even outside the context of your products, are key aspects of this strategy​​​​​​​​​​​​.

Struggling with high user churn rates and low retention?

Our UX team can help you.

Learn more

Loyalty or rewards programs and subscription models 

Loyalty programs are integral to driving LTV as they motivate customers to continue making purchases. These programs can lead to better customer retention, provide cross-selling and upselling opportunities, and increase customer engagement. 

Key strategies include offering meaningful rewards, reminding customers of their rewards, personalizing experiences, encouraging positive reviews and referrals, and leveraging social media for brand advocacy. 

Product line extensions 

Product line extensions involve expanding existing product offerings by introducing new variations or models. This strategy leverages the brand’s reputation and can lead to revenue growth and increased customer loyalty. Key principles include diversification, brand leverage, risk mitigation, and enhancing consumer choice. 

Benefits include market expansion, enhanced customer loyalty, economies of scale, strengthened brand recognition, and a competitive advantage. However, challenges such as cannibalization and brand dilution must be carefully managed​​​​.

Struggling with high user churn rates and low retention?

Our UX team can help you.

Learn more

Balancing LTV and Customer Acquisition Cost (CAC)

The LTV:CAC ratio is a vital metric for assessing business health, indicating the balance between the lifetime value of a customer and the cost to acquire them. This ratio helps understand profitability and sustainability.

A balanced LTV:CAC ratio, typically around 3:1, suggests that a company is deriving significant value from customers relative to the cost of acquiring them. Ratios lower than this indicate high acquisition costs or insufficient revenue generation, necessitating immediate improvement in LTV or reduction in CAC. 

A very high ratio may point to under-investment in growth opportunities, suggesting potential to expand marketing efforts for greater customer acquisition​​. Here’s how to adjust your strategies based on this ratio:

  • Utilize dashboards to analyze LTV, CAC, and their ratio. Compare current data with previous years and forecasts to assess business performance​​.
  • Analyze factors impacting LTV and CAC, such as customer recurrence, churn rate, activation rate, and the duration of business relationships​​.
  • Focus on increasing customer retention, frequency of purchases, and average order value. Subscription models and cross-selling are effective strategies here​​.
  • Enhance organic customer acquisition through SEO, incentivize customer referrals, and improve conversion rates by understanding and targeting the most responsive customer segments​​.
  • Avoid generalizations by examining LTV and CAC across different demographics and customer behaviors.
  • And don't forget your CTA UX!

Customer Retention

Customer retention is increasingly challenging across various industries due to factors like heightened competition, changing consumer preferences, and the ease of switching to competitors. 

Businesses face several challenges in retaining customers, including prioritizing customer acquisition over retention, failing to leverage customer feedback, not providing exceptional customer service, and lacking personalized experiences and a human touch in interactions.

On the other hand, effective retention strategies foster customer loyalty, resulting in repeat purchases and referrals, both of which enhance LTV. Retaining customers is more cost-effective than acquiring new ones, as loyal customers often have a higher LTV due to increased purchases over time.


How does good onboarding help retain customers

The onboarding process is a critical stage in the customer lifecycle, significantly impacting both customer retention and lifetime value. 

A well-executed onboarding process, as detailed in our earlier article, "Mastering the SaaS onboarding process: a step-by-step guide," helps customers understand and experience the value of your product, encouraging them to keep using it and potentially converting trial users into paid customers.

Best practices and strategies for effective customer onboarding include:

  1. Streamlined sign-up process. Keep it short, as suggested in our older article, and if extensive information is needed, consider splitting it across multiple pages.
  2. Welcoming initial communication. Send a welcome email with helpful resources, reaffirming the customer's decision, as our previous guide emphasizes the importance of smooth start and user satisfaction.
  3. Guided first log-in experience. Include a tutorial or setup wizard, aligning with the idea of quick ramp-up and feature adoption mentioned in our earlier article.
  4. Support for integrations and data imports. Automate these for B2B products, in line with our previous insights on the importance of seamless ecosystem integrations.
  5. Regular follow-up communications. Keep engaging with follow-up emails offering valuable tips and resources, reflecting the ongoing engagement strategies highlighted before.

For a deeper understanding and more comprehensive strategies, we highly recommend revisiting our detailed guide, available here. This resource offers extensive insights into personalization, education, and the role of customer success in onboarding, vital for enhancing the customer experience and retention.

How to boost retention rates

To boost retention rates, understanding customer behavior after the first purchase is essential. Positive experiences foster loyalty, while negative ones can lead to dissatisfaction. Effective strategies to reduce post-purchase dissonance include offering quality products, detailed information, excellent customer service, and hassle-free returns. 

Personalizing customer experiences and trust-building are also crucial tactics for retention. Moreover, free and flexible returns are essential, with 95% of customers who had a simple returns process likely to buy again. 

Similarly, free shipping is crucial, with 88% of customers more likely to buy with this option. However, quality shipping services are pivotal in maintaining customer relationships.

Struggling with high user churn rates and low retention?

Our UX team can help you.

Learn more


In summary, for startups to grow and make money, focusing on LTV and keeping customers is key. Our guide showed that LTV is all about building lasting relationships with your customers and making sure they stick around. We've shared practical tips, like targeting the right customers and making their shopping experience better, while also keeping an eye on costs. 

Remember, it's cheaper and smarter to keep your current customers happy than to always look for new ones. By following these steps, startups can build a loyal customer base and see real growth and success. This guide is your starting point to make that happen.

call to action image

Design packages for your startup

Ideal for early-stage product UIs and websites.

See pricing

CEO and Founder of Merge

My mission is to help startups build software, experiment with new features, and bring their product vision to life.

My mission is to help startups build software, experiment with new features, and bring their product vision to life.

You may interested in

Let’s take this to your inbox

Join our newsletter for expert tips on growth, product design, conversion tactics, and the latest in tech.

Need help with product design or development?

Book a call
Estimate light